This cave is attributed to the second phase of the Sappali culture, a variant of the Bactrian-Margiana culture.
Three important factors facilitated this socio-economic transformation: rapid population growth on fertile land, military organization of a newly established state ruled by those who not long before were nomads, and the advanced cultural traditions of the Bactrian-Margiana culture, which still survived to some degree.
A new stage in cultural development in Sogdiana began in the seventh and the sixth centuries BCE.
Most likely, it was the invasion of the nomads that reduced to practically nothing the achievements of the Bactrian-Margiana culture, although it did not eliminate old traditions completely.
Some invaders settled on deserted and fertile lands and took up agriculture.
Some characteristic features of this culture are more archaic than those included in the Bactrian-Margiana cultural circle or even those of the more ancient culture of Sarasm.
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For example, so-called semi-huts appeared in place of houses made of unbaked brick and consisting of several rooms.
There are a few Upper Paleolithic settlements (in Samarkand, for example) as well; at the same time, nothing from the Neolithic period has yet been found.
Sarasm, situated between Samarkand and Panjikent, is an Eneolithic monument dated to the fourth and third millennia BCE.
However, for a more complete picture we need to note the monuments of earlier periods.
The most ancient archaeological findings on the territory of Sogdiana date to the Middle Paleolithic period.