The cultivation of crops With the arrival of the African farmers in Southern Africa came the spread of crop farming.
Martin West, in his study of this period, points out that all the African peoples were subsistence farmers to begin with.
Cattle were a considerable source of food, though more for milk than for meat.
They also provided many valuable by-products such as skin for clothing and hide and horn for containers.
Like the Khoikhoi, the Iron Age farmers also had domestic animals and pottery.
These farmers brought with them four important new items:”¢ Bantu languages”¢Cultivation of crops”¢ Settled village life”¢ Metal tools These four changes influenced the way most people lived in the eastern part of the country.
It became necessary to stay in one place, close to your crops, for longer periods of time Sturdier, more permanent houses were built and people were able to keep more possessions.
These include clothing, mats, tools such as hoes and baked-clay pots for cooking, storm food or carrying water.
Bride wealth (lobola/bogadi) was calculated in terms of cattle.
They were also used to pay fines and to ensure the goodwill of ancestral spirits.