The oldest known settlement in Estonia is the Pulli settlement, which was located on the banks of the river Pärnu, near the town of Sindi, in southern Estonia.
According to radiocarbon dating, it was settled around 11,000 years ago, at the beginning of the 9th millennium BC.
The "pagan raiders" who sacked the Swedish town of Sigtuna during the early middle ages, in 1187 may have been Estonians.).
The province comprised several elderships or villages. The defense of the local area was directed by the highest official, the king or elder.
The Estophile Enlightenment Period (1750–1840) led to a national awakening in the mid-19th century.
In 1918 the Estonian Declaration of Independence was issued, to be followed by the Estonian War of Independence (1918–1920), which resulted in the Tartu Peace Treaty recognizing Estonian independence in perpetuity.The most significant was the transition to farming, which has remained at the core of Estonian economy and culture.From approximately the first to 5th centuries AD, resident farming was widely established, the population grew, and settlement expanded.Over the centuries, the Estonians were subjected to Danish, Teutonic, Swedish and Russian rule. In the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade the area was conquered by Danes and Germans.From 1228–1562, parts or most of Estonia were incorporated into a crusader state Terra Mariana, that became part of the Ordensstaat, and after its decline was formed the Livonian Confederation.Several Scandinavian sagas refer to campaigns against Estonia.Estonian pirates conducted similar raids in the Viking age.At the beginning of the 13th century, Lembitu of Lehola, a chieftain of Sakala sought to unify the Estonian people and thwart Danish and Germanic conquest during the Livonian Crusade.He managed to assemble an army of 6,000 Estonian men from different counties, but he was killed during the Battle of St. The southern parts of the country were conquered by Swordbrothers who joined the Teutonic Order in 1237 and became its branch known as Livonian Order.Evidence has been found of hunting and fishing communities existing around 6500 BC near the town of Kunda in northern Estonia.Bone and stone artifacts similar to those found at Kunda have been discovered elsewhere in Estonia, as well as in Latvia, northern Lithuania and in southern Finland.